About the Cover

Statuette of a Woman: "The Stargazer"

3000 BC

Early Bronze Age, Western Anatolia?, 3rd Millennium BC


Overall: 17.2 x 6.5 x 6.3 cm (6 3/4 x 2 9/16 x 2 1/2 in.)

Weight: 453.592 g (16 oz.)

Leonard C. Hanna, Jr. Fund; John L. Severance Fund 1993.165

Image Credit: Cleveland Museum of Art


"The Stargazer" is a small marble statue carved more than 5,000 years ago. It is one of only about 30 known to exist and is one of the earliest sculptures of the human figure in the Cleveland Museum of Art’s collection.

Stargazer is pure and simple in form with an oval-shaped head that looks up toward the heavens. Details carved into the stone are visible; however, painted features have been lost to time. The sculpture has no mouth, her nose is an elongated ridge, and her small, circular eyes are done in the slightest of relief. The figure can be identified as female by the incised triangular lines below the pelvic area. These same lines define the legs and stop at the feet, which appear to be held tightly together and are her narrowest point.

Thought to be from Western Anatolia, she is carved from a translucent marble that emulates a soft flesh when polished, which adds to the figure’s mystical quality. The Stargazer cannot stand on her own, suggesting that she may have been meant to be held or to lay down. The female form may be associated with fertility and abundance.

While it is not known how this object was used, her mysterious nature invites speculation. Her modernist form gives her a sense of timelessness as her upturned head draws attention away from herself to what is above and outside.


Mikolic A. Statuette of a Woman: The Stargazer is a ‘must see’ at the CMA. Cleveland Museum of Art. Published February 1, 2019. https://medium.com/cma-thinker/statuette-of-a-woman-the-stargazer-is-a-must-see-at-the-cma-3d2d64115c7d

Statuette of a Woman: “The Stargazer” c. 3000 BC. Cleveland Museum of Art. Accessed January 26, 2022. https://www.clevelandart.org/art/1993.165

DOI: https://doi.org/10.20411/pai.v7i1

Published: 2022-02-02

Erratum to: Use of a MAIT Activating Ligand, 5-OP-RU, as a Mucosal Adjuvant in a Murine Model of Vibrio cholerae O1 Vaccination

Owen Jensen, Shubhanshi Trivedi, Jackson G. Cacioppo, Kelin Li, Jeffrey Aubé, J. Scott Hale, Edward T. Ryan, Daniel T Leung


DOI: https://doi.org/10.20411/pai.v7i1.541

Use of a MAIT Activating Ligand, 5-OP-RU, as a Mucosal Adjuvant in a Murine Model of Vibrio cholerae O1 Vaccination

Owen Jensen, Shubhanshi Trivedi, Kelin Li, Jeffrey Aubé, J. Scott Hale, Edward T. Ryan, Daniel T. Leung


DOI: https://doi.org/10.20411/pai.v7i1.525

An ACE2-IgG4 Fc Fusion Protein Demonstrates Strong Binding to All Tested SARS-CoV-2 Variants and Reduced Lung Inflammation in Animal Models of SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza

Emmanuel Y. Merigeon, Dong Yang, Elizabeth A. Ihms, Leda C. Bassit, Elizabeth A. Fitzpatrick, Colleen B. Jonsson, Raymond F. Schinazi, David S. Block, Henrik S. Olsen


DOI: https://doi.org/10.20411/pai.v7i1.491

Why Does Doxycycline Pose a Relatively Low Risk for Promotion of Clostridioides difficile Infection?

Dongyan Xu, Thriveen S.C. Mana, Jennifer L. Cadnum, Abhishek Deshpande, Faezeh Afsari, Naseer Sangwan, Curtis J. Donskey


DOI: https://doi.org/10.20411/pai.v7i1.512

Elevated Plasma Soluble ST2 Levels are Associated With Neuronal Injury and Neurocognitive Impairment in Children With Cerebral Malaria

Elizabeth Fernander, Pontian Adogamhe, Dibyadyuti Datta, Caitlin Bond, Yi Zhao, Paul Bangirana, Andrea L. Conroy, Robert O. Opoka, Chandy John


DOI: https://doi.org/10.20411/pai.v7i1.499

Ultraviolet-C Light-emitting Device Against Microorganisms in Beauty Salons

Margarete Teresa Gottardo de Almeida, Bianca Gottardo de Almeida, João Paulo Zen Siqueira, Gabriela Byzynski Soares, Vinicius Sigari Morais, Fátima Maria Mitsue Yasuoka, Filippo Ghiglieno


DOI: https://doi.org/10.20411/pai.v7i1.497
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20411/pai.v7i1.495

SARS in Cars: Carbon Dioxide Levels Provide a Simple Means to Assess Ventilation in Motor Vehicles

Muhammed F. Haq, MD, Jennifer L. Cadnum, BS, Matthew Carlisle, BS, Michelle T. Hecker, MD, Curtis J. Donskey, MD


DOI: https://doi.org/10.20411/pai.v7i1.493

A Pilot Single Cell Analysis of the Zebrafish Embryo Cellular Responses to Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection

Ashley Rawson, Vijay Saxena, Hongyu Gao, Jenaya Hooks, Xiaoling Xuei, Patrick McGuire, Takashi Hato, David S. Hains, Ryan M. Anderson, Andrew L Schwaderer


DOI: https://doi.org/10.20411/pai.v7i1.479

Effect of Oral Nirmatrelvir on Long COVID Symptoms: 4 Cases and Rationale for Systematic Studies

Michael J. Peluso, M.D. , Khamal Anglin, M.D., Matthew S. Durstenfeld, M.D., Jeffrey N. Martin, M.D., J. Daniel Kelly, M.D., Ph.D., Priscilla Y. Hsue, M.D., Timothy J. Henrich, M.D., Steven G. Deeks, M.D.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.20411/pai.v7i1.518
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20411/pai.v7i1.515