Update on the Pathogenesis, Virulence, and Treatment of Candida auris

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Richard R. Watkins
Rachael Gowen
Michail S. Lionakis
Mahmoud Ghannoum


Candida auris is an emerging, multi-drug resistant fungal pathogen that causes considerable morbidity and mortality. First identified in Japan in 2009, it has since been reported in more than 40 countries. C. auris can persist for long periods on different environmental surfaces as well as the skin. Clinical isolates are typically resistant to commonly prescribed antifungal drugs. Increasingly recognized as a cause of infections and outbreaks in nosocomial settings, C. auris is difficult to identify using traditional microbiological methods. One of the main reasons for the ongoing spread of C. auris is the multitude of virulence factors it possesses and uses against its human host that enables fungal persistence on the skin surface. Yet, many of the virulence mechanisms are unknown or remain incompletely understood. In this review, we summarize the evolution of virulence of C. auris, offer recommendations for combating this important human pathogen, and suggest directions for further research.


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