Harnessing Bacterial Extracellular Vesicle Immune Effects for Cancer Therapy

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Irem Karaman
Asmita Pathak
Defne Bayik
Dionysios C. Watson


There are a growing number of studies linking the composition of the human microbiome to disease states and treatment responses, especially in the context of cancer. This has raised significant interest in developing microbes and microbial products as cancer immunotherapeutics that mimic or recapitulate the beneficial effects of host-microbe interactions. Bacterial extracellular vesicles (bEVs) are nano-sized, membrane-bound particles secreted by essentially all bacteria species and contain a diverse bioactive cargo of the producing cell. They have a fundamental role in facilitating interactions among cells of the same species, different microbial species, and even with multicellular host organisms in the context of colonization (microbiome) and infection. The interaction of bEVs with the immune system has been studied extensively in the context of infection and suggests that bEV effects depend largely on the producing species. They thus provide functional diversity, while also being nonreplicative, having inherent cell-targeting qualities, and potentially overcoming natural barriers. These characteristics make them highly appealing for development as cancer immunotherapeutics. Both natively secreted and engineered bEVs are now being investigated for their application as immunotherapeutics, vaccines, drug delivery vehicles, and combinations of the above, with promising early results. This suggests that both the intrinsic immunomodulatory properties of bEVs and their ability to be modified could be harnessed for the development of next-generation microbe-inspired therapies. Nonetheless, there remain major outstanding questions regarding how the observed preclinical effectiveness will translate from murine models to primates, and humans in particular. Moreover, research into the pharmacology, toxicology, and mass manufacturing of this potential novel therapeutic platform is still at early stages. In this review, we highlight the breadth of bEV interactions with host cells, focusing on immunologic effects as the main mechanism of action of bEVs currently in preclinical development. We review the literature on ongoing efforts to develop natively secreted and engineered bEVs from a variety of bacterial species for cancer therapy and finally discuss efforts to overcome outstanding challenges that remain for clinical translation.


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