COVID-19 Outcomes in Patients Undergoing B Cell Depletion Therapy and Those with Humoral Immunodeficiency States: A Scoping Review

Main Article Content

Jessica Jones
Aiman Faruqi
James Sullivan
Cassandra Calabrese
Leonard Calabrese

Abstract

Background: The role of humoral immunity has been well established in reducing infection risk and facilitating viral clearance in patients with COVID-19. However, the relationship between specific antibody responses and severity of COVID-19 is less well understood. 


Methods: To address this question and identify gaps in knowledge, we utilized the methodology of a scoping review to interrogate risk of infection and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with iatrogenic and inborn humoral immunodeficiency states based on existing literature. 


Results: Among patients with iatrogenic B-cell depletion, particularly with agents targeting CD20, our analysis found increased risk of severe COVID-19 and death across a range of underlying disease states. Among patients with humoral inborn errors of immunity with COVID-19, our synthesis found that patients with dysregulated humoral immunity, predominantly common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), may be more susceptible to severe COVID-19 than patients with humoral immunodeficiency states due to X-linked agammaglobulinemia and other miscellaneous forms of humoral immunodeficiency. There were insufficient data to appraise the risk of COVID-19 infection in both populations of patients. 


Conclusions: Our work identifies potentially significant predictors of COVID-19 severity in patients with humoral immunodeficiency states and highlights the need for larger studies to control for clinical and biologic confounders of disease severity.

Article Details

Section
Articles

References

Ahmad T, Chaudhuri R, Joshi MC, Almatroudi A, Rahmani AH, Ali SM. COVID-19: The Emerging Immunopathological Determinants for Recovery or Death. Front Microbiol. 2020;11:588409. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.588409. PMCID: PMC7736111 PMID: 33335518

Moderbacher CR, Ramirez SI, Dan JM, Grifoni A, Hastie KM, Weiskopf D, Belanger S, Abbott RK, Kim C, Choi J, Kato Y, Crotty EG, Kim C, Rawlings SA, Mateus J, Tse LPV, Frazier A, Baric R, Peters B, Greenbaum J, Saphire EO, Smith DM, Sette A, Crotty S. Antigen-Specific Adaptive Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in Acute COVID-19 and Associations with Age and Disease Severity. Cell [Internet]. Elsevier; 2020 Sep 16 [cited 2020 Oct 10];0(0). doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.038. Available from: https://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(20)31235-6 PMID: 33010815

Zohar T, Alter G. Dissecting antibody-mediated protection against SARS-CoV-2. Nat Rev Immunol. 2020 Jul;20(7):392–394. doi:10.1038/s41577-020-0359-5. PMCID: PMC7278217 PMID: 32514035

ACTIV-3/TICO LY-CoV555 Study Group, Lundgren JD, Grund B, Barkauskas CE, Holland TL, Gottlieb RL, Sandkovsky U, Brown SM, Knowlton KU, Self WH, Files DC, Jain MK, Benfield T, Bowdish ME, Leshnower BG, Baker JV, Jensen J-U, Gardner EM, Ginde AA, Harris ES, Johansen IS, Markowitz N, Matthay MA, Østergaard L, Chang CC, Davey VJ, Goodman A, Higgs ES, Murray DD, Murray TA, Paredes R, Parmar MKB, Phillips AN, Reilly C, Sharma S, Dewar RL, Teitelbaum M, Wentworth D, Cao H, Klekotka P, Babiker AG, Gelijns AC, Kan VL, Polizzotto MN, Thompson BT, Lane HC, Neaton JD. A Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody for Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021 Mar 11;384(10):905–914. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2033130. PMCID: PMC7781100 PMID: 33356051

Lumley SF, O’Donnell D, Stoesser NE, Matthews PC, Howarth A, Hatch SB, Marsden BD, Cox S, James T, Warren F, Peck LJ, Ritter TG, de Toledo Z, Warren L, Axten D, Cornall RJ, Jones EY, Stuart DI, Screaton G, Ebner D, Hoosdally S, Chand M, Crook DW, O’Donnell A-M, Conlon CP, Pouwels KB, Walker AS, Peto TEA, Hopkins S, Walker TM, Jeffery K, Eyre DW, Oxford University Hospitals Staff Testing Group. Antibody Status and Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Health Care Workers. N Engl J Med. 2021 Feb 11;384(6):533–540. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2034545. PMCID: PMC7781098 PMID: 33369366

Anderson EJ, Rouphael NG, Widge AT, Jackson LA, Roberts PC, Makhene M, Chappell JD, Denison MR, Stevens LJ, Pruijssers AJ, McDermott AB, Flach B, Lin BC, Doria-Rose NA, O’Dell S, Schmidt SD, Corbett KS, Swanson PA, Padilla M, Neuzil KM, Bennett H, Leav B, Makowski M, Albert J, Cross K, Edara VV, Floyd K, Suthar MS, Martinez DR, Baric R, Buchanan W, Luke CJ, Phadke VK, Rostad CA, Ledgerwood JE, Graham BS, Beigel JH, mRNA-1273 Study Group. Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Older Adults. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 17;383(25):2427–2438. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2028436. PMCID: PMC7556339 PMID: 32991794

Long Q-X, Liu B-Z, Deng H-J, Wu G-C, Deng K, Chen Y-K, Liao P, Qiu J-F, Lin Y, Cai X-F, Wang D-Q, Hu Y, Ren J-H, Tang N, Xu Y-Y, Yu L-H, Mo Z, Gong F, Zhang X-L, Tian W-G, Hu L, Zhang X-X, Xiang J-L, Du H-X, Liu H-W, Lang C-H, Luo X-H, Wu S-B, Cui X-P, Zhou Z, Zhu M-M, Wang J, Xue C-J, Li X-F, Wang L, Li Z-J, Wang K, Niu C-C, Yang Q-J, Tang X-J, Zhang Y, Liu X-M, Li J-J, Zhang D-C, Zhang F, Liu P, Yuan J, Li Q, Hu J-L, Chen J, Huang A-L. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19. Nat Med. 2020 Jun;26(6):845–848. doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0897-1. PMID: 32350462

Bahadoran A, Lee SH, Wang SM, Manikam R, Rajarajeswaran J, Raju CS, Sekaran SD. Immune Responses to Influenza Virus and Its Correlation to Age and Inherited Factors. Front Microbiol [Internet]. 2016 Nov 22 [cited 2020 Dec 6];7. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.01841. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5118461/ PMCID: PMC5118461 PMID: 27920759

Chaplin DD. Overview of the Immune Response. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Feb;125(2 Suppl 2):S3-23. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2009.12.980. PMCID: PMC2923430 PMID: 20176265

Krammer F. The human antibody response to influenza A virus infection and vaccination. Nat Rev Immunol. 2019 Jun;19(6):383–397. doi:10.1038/s41577-019-0143-6. PMID: 30837674

Zhou D, Zhang Y, Li Q, Chen Y, He B, Yang J, Tu H, Lei L, Yan H. Matrix Protein-Specific IgA Antibody Inhibits Measles Virus Replication by Intracellular Neutralization ▿. J Virol. 2011 Nov;85(21):11090–11097. doi:10.1128/JVI.00768-11. PMCID: PMC3194966 PMID: 21865386

El Mubarak HS, Ibrahim SA, Vos HW, Mukhtar MM, Mustafa OA, Wild TF, Osterhaus ADME, de Swart RL. Measles virus protein-specific IgM, IgA, and IgG subclass responses during the acute and convalescent phase of infection. J Med Virol. 2004 Feb;72(2):290–298. doi:10.1002/jmv.10553. PMID: 14695672

Huang AT, Garcia-Carreras B, Hitchings MDT, Yang B, Katzelnick LC, Rattigan SM, Borgert BA, Moreno CA, Solomon BD, Trimmer-Smith L, Etienne V, Rodriguez-Barraquer I, Lessler J, Salje H, Burke DS, Wesolowski A, Cummings DAT. A systematic review of antibody mediated immunity to coronaviruses: kinetics, correlates of protection, and association with severity. Nat Commun. 2020 17;11(1):4704. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18450-4. PMCID: PMC7499300 PMID: 32943637

Coughlin MM, Prabhakar BS. Neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus: target, mechanism of action, and therapeutic potential. Rev Med Virol. 2012 Jan;22(1):2–17. doi:10.1002/rmv.706. PMCID: PMC3256278 PMID: 21905149

Russell CD, Unger SA, Walton M, Schwarze J. The Human Immune Response to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2017 Apr;30(2):481–502. doi:10.1128/CMR.00090-16. PMCID: PMC5355638 PMID: 28179378

Lee WS, Wheatley AK, Kent SJ, DeKosky BJ. Antibody-dependent enhancement and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapies. Nat Microbiol. 2020 Oct;5(10):1185–1191. doi:10.1038/s41564-020-00789-5. PMID: 32908214

Calabrese LH, Calabrese C, Lenfant T, Kirchner E, Strand V. Infections in the Era of Targeted Therapies: Mapping the Road Ahead. Front Med (Lausanne). 2020;7:336. doi:10.3389/fmed.2020.00336. PMCID: PMC7461856 PMID: 32974356

Tricco AC, Lillie E, Zarin W, O’Brien KK, Colquhoun H, Levac D, Moher D, Peters MDJ, Horsley T, Weeks L, Hempel S, Akl EA, Chang C, McGowan J, Stewart L, Hartling L, Aldcroft A, Wilson MG, Garritty C, Lewin S, Godfrey CM, Macdonald MT, Langlois EV, Soares-Weiser K, Moriarty J, Clifford T, Tunçalp Ö, Straus SE. PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and Explanation. Ann Intern Med. 2018 Oct 2;169(7):467–473. doi:10.7326/M18-0850. PMID: 30178033

Abraham RS, Marshall JM, Kuehn HS, Rueda CM, Gibbs A, Guider W, Stewart C, Rosenzweig SD, Wang H, Jean S, Peeples M, King T, Hunt WG, Honegger JR, Ramilo O, Mustillo PJ, Mejias A, Ardura MI, Shimamura M. Severe SARS-CoV-2 disease in the context of a NF-κB2 loss-of-function pathogenic variant. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021 Feb;147(2):532-544.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2020.09.020. PMCID: PMC7525247 PMID: 33007327

Pfeuffer S, Pawlowski M, Joos GS, Minnerup J, Meuth SG, Dziewas R, Wiendl H. Autoimmunity complicating SARS-CoV-2 infection in selective IgA-deficiency. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm [Internet]. 2020 Aug 12 [cited 2020 Nov 29];7(6). doi:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000881. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428357/ PMCID: PMC7428357 PMID: 32817413

Buckland MS, Galloway JB, Fhogartaigh CN, Meredith L, Provine NM, Bloor S, Ogbe A, Zelek WM, Smielewska A, Yakovleva A, Mann T, Bergamaschi L, Turner L, Mescia F, Toonen EJM, Hackstein C-P, Akther HD, Vieira VA, Ceron-Gutierrez L, Periselneris J, Kiani-Alikhan S, Grigoriadou S, Vaghela D, Lear SE, Török ME, Hamilton WL, Stockton J, Quick J, Nelson P, Hunter M, Coulter TI, Devlin L, CITIID-NIHR COVID-19 BioResource Collaboration, MRC-Toxicology Unit COVID-19 Consortium, Bradley JR, Smith KGC, Ouwehand WH, Estcourt L, Harvala H, Roberts DJ, Wilkinson IB, Screaton N, Loman N, Doffinger R, Lyons PA, Morgan BP, Goodfellow IG, Klenerman P, Lehner PJ, Matheson NJ, Thaventhiran JED. Treatment of COVID-19 with remdesivir in the absence of humoral immunity: a case report. Nat Commun. 2020 Dec 14;11(1):6385. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19761-2. PMID: 33318491

Mullur J, Wang A, Feldweg A. A fatal case of coronavirus disease 2019 in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2021 Jan;126(1):90–92. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2020.08.017. PMCID: PMC7431323 PMID: 32818593

Ribeiro LC, Benites BD, Ulaf RG, Nunes TA, Costa-Lima C, Addas-Carvalho M, Proenca-Modena JL, Granja F, da Costa VA, Duarte A da SS, Zangirolami AB, Amaro EC, Mansour E, Zollner RL, Velloso LA. Rapid clinical recovery of a SARS-CoV-2 infected common variable immunodeficiency patient following the infusion of COVID-19 convalescent plasma. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2021 Feb 5;17(1):14. doi:10.1186/s13223-021-00518-5. PMCID: PMC7862981 PMID: 33546745

Ahanchian H, Moazzen N, Sezavar M, Khalighi N, Khoshkhui M, Aelami MH, Motevalli Haghi NS, Rezaei N. COVID-19 in a child with primary antibody deficiency. Clin Case Rep. 2021 Feb;9(2):755–758. doi:10.1002/ccr3.3643. PMCID: PMC7869323 PMID: 33598240

Ho H-E, Mathew S, Peluso MJ, Cunningham-Rundles C. Clinical outcomes and features of COVID-19 in patients with primary immunodeficiencies in New York City. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2020 Oct 8; doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2020.09.052. PMCID: PMC7543763 PMID: 33039649

Meyts I, Bucciol G, Quinti I, Neven B, Fischer A, Seoane E, Lopez-Granados E, Gianelli C, Robles-Marhuenda A, Jeandel P-Y, Paillard C, Sankaran VG, Demirdag YY, Lougaris V, Aiuti A, Plebani A, Milito C, Dalm VA, Guevara-Hoyer K, Sánchez-Ramón S, Bezrodnik L, Barzaghi F, Gonzalez-Granado LI, Hayman GR, Uzel G, Mendonça LO, Agostini C, Spadaro G, Badolato R, Soresina A, Vermeulen F, Bosteels C, Lambrecht BN, Keller M, Mustillo PJ, Abraham RS, Gupta S, Ozen A, Karakoc-Aydiner E, Baris S, Freeman AF, Yamazaki-Nakashimada M, Scheffler-Mendoza S, Espinosa-Padilla S, Gennery AR, Jolles S, Espinosa Y, Poli MC, Fieschi C, Hauck F, Cunningham-Rundles C, Mahlaoui N, Warnatz K, Sullivan KE, Tangye SG. Coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with inborn errors of immunity: An international study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology [Internet]. Elsevier; 2020 Sep 24 [cited 2020 Dec 6];0(0). doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2020.09.010. Available from: https://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(20)31320-8/abstract PMID: 32980424

Delavari S, Abolhassani H, Abolnezhadian F, Babaha F, Iranparast S, Ahanchian H, Moazzen N, Nabavi M, Arshi S, Fallahpour M, Bemanian MH, Shokri S, Momen T, Sadeghi-Shabestari M, Molatefi R, Shirkani A, Vosughimotlagh A, Safarirad M, Sharifzadeh M, Pashangzadeh S, Salami F, Shirmast P, Rezaei A, Moeini Shad T, Mohraz M, Rezaei N, Hammarström L, Yazdani R, Aghamohamamdi A. Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic on Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency. J Clin Immunol. 2020 Dec 1; doi:10.1007/s10875-020-00928-x. PMCID: PMC7707812 PMID: 33263173

Marcus N, Frizinsky S, Hagin D, Ovadia A, Hanna S, Farkash M, Maoz-Segal R, Agmon-Levin N, Broides A, Nahum A, Rosenberg E, Kuperman AA, Dinur-Schejter Y, Berkun Y, Toker O, Goldberg S, Confino-Cohen R, Scheuerman O, Badarneh B, Epstein-Rigbi N, Etzioni A, Dalal I, Somech R. Minor Clinical Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Patients With Primary Immunodeficiency in Israel. Front Immunol. 2020;11:614086. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.614086. PMCID: PMC7840610 PMID: 33519822

Corse T, Dayan L, Kersten S, Battaglia F, Terlecky SR, Han Z. Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients with Pre-existing, Compromised Immune Systems: A Review of Case Reports. Int J Med Sci. 2020;17(18):2974–2986. doi:10.7150/ijms.50537. PMCID: PMC7646123 PMID: 33173418

Safavi F, Nourbakhsh B, Azimi AR. B-cell depleting therapies may affect susceptibility to acute respiratory illness among patients with multiple sclerosis during the early COVID-19 epidemic in Iran. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Aug;43:102195. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102195. PMCID: PMC7219389 PMID: 32460086

Sahraian MA, Azimi A, Navardi S, Ala S, Naser Moghadasi A. Evaluation of the rate of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization and death among Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Nov;46:102472. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102472. PMCID: PMC7456295 PMID: 32890817

Sormani MP, De Rossi N, Schiavetti I, Carmisciano L, Cordioli C, Moiola L, Radaelli M, Immovilli P, Capobianco M, Trojano M, Zaratin P, Tedeschi G, Comi G, Battaglia MA, Patti F, Salvetti M, Musc-19 Study Group. Disease-Modifying Therapies and Coronavirus Disease 2019 Severity in Multiple Sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2021 Apr;89(4):780–789. doi:10.1002/ana.26028. PMCID: PMC8013440 PMID: 33480077

Parrotta E, Kister I, Charvet L, Sammarco C, Saha V, Charlson RE, Howard J, Gutman JM, Gottesman M, Abou-Fayssal N, Wolintz R, Keilson M, Fernandez-Carbonell C, Krupp LB, Zhovtis Ryerson L. COVID-19 outcomes in MS: Observational study of early experience from NYU Multiple Sclerosis Comprehensive Care Center. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2020 Sep;7(5). doi:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000835. PMCID: PMC7357412 PMID: 32646885

Contributors F /SFR/SNFMI/SOFREMIP/CRI/IMIDIATE consortium and contributors. Severity of COVID-19 and survival in patients with rheumatic and inflammatory diseases: data from the French RMD COVID-19 cohort of 694 patients. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases [Internet]. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd; 2020 Dec 2 [cited 2021 Jan 13]; doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218310. Available from: https://ard.bmj.com/content/early/2020/12/01/annrheumdis-2020-218310 PMID: 33268442

Avouac J, Drumez E, Hachulla E, Seror R, Georgin-Lavialle S, El Mahou S, Pertuiset E, Pham T, Marotte H, Servettaz A, Domont F, Chazerain P, Devaux M, Claudepierre P, Langlois V, Mekinian A, Maria ATJ, Banneville B, Fautrel B, Pouchot J, Thomas T, Flipo R-M, Richez C, FAI2R/SFR/SNFMI/SOFREMIP/CRI/IMIDIATE consortium and contributors. COVID-19 outcomes in patients with inflammatory rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases treated with rituximab: a cohort study. Lancet Rheumatol. 2021 Mar 25; doi:10.1016/S2665-9913(21)00059-X. PMCID: PMC7993930 PMID: 33786454

Salter A, Fox RJ, Newsome SD, Halper J, Li DKB, Kanellis P, Costello K, Bebo B, Rammohan K, Cutter GR, Cross AH. Outcomes and Risk Factors Associated With SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a North American Registry of Patients With Multiple Sclerosis. JAMA Neurol. 2021 Mar 19; doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.0688. PMCID: PMC7980147 PMID: 33739362

Strangfeld A, Schäfer M, Gianfrancesco MA, Lawson-Tovey S, Liew JW, Ljung L, Mateus EF, Richez C, Santos MJ, Schmajuk G, Scirè CA, Sirotich E, Sparks JA, Sufka P, Thomas T, Trupin L, Wallace ZS, Al-Adely S, Bachiller-Corral J, Bhana S, Cacoub P, Carmona L, Costello R, Costello W, Gossec L, Grainger R, Hachulla E, Hasseli R, Hausmann JS, Hyrich KL, Izadi Z, Jacobsohn L, Katz P, Kearsley-Fleet L, Robinson PC, Yazdany J, Machado PM, COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance. Factors associated with COVID-19-related death in people with rheumatic diseases: results from the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance physician-reported registry. Ann Rheum Dis. 2021 Jan 27; doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-219498. PMCID: PMC7843211 PMID: 33504483

Hueso T, Pouderoux C, Péré H, Beaumont A-L, Raillon L-A, Ader F, Chatenoud L, Eshagh D, Szwebel T-A, Martinot M, Camou F, Crickx E, Michel M, Mahevas M, Boutboul D, Azoulay E, Joseph A, Hermine O, Rouzaud C, Faguer S, Petua P, Pommeret F, Clerc S, Planquette B, Merabet F, London J, Zeller V, Ghez D, Veyer D, Ouedrani A, Gallian P, Pacanowski J, Mékinian A, Garnier M, Pirenne F, Tiberghien P, Lacombe K. Convalescent plasma therapy for B-cell-depleted patients with protracted COVID-19. Blood. United States; 2020 Nov 12;136(20):2290–2295. doi:10.1182/blood.2020008423. PMID: 32959052

McMahan K, Yu J, Mercado NB, Loos C, Tostanoski LH, Chandrashekar A, Liu J, Peter L, Atyeo C, Zhu A, Bondzie EA, Dagotto G, Gebre MS, Jacob-Dolan C, Li Z, Nampanya F, Patel S, Pessaint L, Van Ry A, Blade K, Yalley-Ogunro J, Cabus M, Brown R, Cook A, Teow E, Andersen H, Lewis MG, Lauffenburger DA, Alter G, Barouch DH. Correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques. Nature. 2021 Feb;590(7847):630–634. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03041-6. PMCID: PMC7906955 PMID: 33276369

Corbett KS, Flynn B, Foulds KE, Francica JR, Boyoglu-Barnum S, Werner AP, Flach B, O’Connell S, Bock KW, Minai M, Nagata BM, Andersen H, Martinez DR, Noe AT, Douek N, Donaldson MM, Nji NN, Alvarado GS, Edwards DK, Flebbe DR, Lamb E, Doria-Rose NA, Lin BC, Louder MK, O’Dell S, Schmidt SD, Phung E, Chang LA, Yap C, Todd J-PM, Pessaint L, Ry AV, Browne S, Greenhouse J, Putman-Taylor T, Strasbaugh A, Campbell T-A, Cook A, Dodson A, Steingrebe K, Shi W, Zhang Y, Abiona OM, Wang L, Pegu A, Yang ES, Leung K, Zhou T, Teng I-T, Widge A, Gordon I, Novik L, Gillespie RA, Loomis RJ, Moliva JI, Stewart-Jones G, Himansu S, Kong W-P, Nason MC, Morabito KM, Ruckwardt TJ, Ledgerwood JE, Gaudinski MR, Kwong PD, Mascola JR, Carfi A, Lewis MG, Baric RS, McDermott A, Moore IN, Sullivan NJ, Roederer M, Seder RA, Graham BS. Evaluation of the mRNA-1273 Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in Nonhuman Primates. New England Journal of Medicine [Internet]. Massachusetts Medical Society; 2020 Jul 28 [cited 2021 Feb 5]; doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2024671. Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa2024671

Weinreich DM, Sivapalasingam S, Norton T, Ali S, Gao H, Bhore R, Musser BJ, Soo Y, Rofail D, Im J, Perry C, Pan C, Hosain R, Mahmood A, Davis JD, Turner KC, Hooper AT, Hamilton JD, Baum A, Kyratsous CA, Kim Y, Cook A, Kampman W, Kohli A, Sachdeva Y, Graber X, Kowal B, DiCioccio T, Stahl N, Lipsich L, Braunstein N, Herman G, Yancopoulos GD, Trial Investigators. REGN-COV2, a Neutralizing Antibody Cocktail, in Outpatients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021 Jan 21;384(3):238–251. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2035002. PMCID: PMC7781102 PMID: 33332778

Abolghasemi H, Eshghi P, Cheraghali AM, Imani Fooladi AA, Bolouki Moghaddam F, Imanizadeh S, Moeini Maleki M, Ranjkesh M, Rezapour M, Bahramifar A, Einollahi B, Hosseini MJ, Jafari NJ, Nikpouraghdam M, Sadri N, Tazik M, Sali S, Okati S, Askari E, Tabarsi P, Aslani J, Sharifipour E, Jarahzadeh MH, Khodakarim N, Salesi M, Jafari R, Shahverdi S. Clinical efficacy of convalescent plasma for treatment of COVID-19 infections: Results of a multicenter clinical study. Transfus Apher Sci. 2020 Oct;59(5):102875. doi:10.1016/j.transci.2020.102875. PMCID: PMC7362821 PMID: 32694043

Piccoli L, Park Y-J, Tortorici MA, Czudnochowski N, Walls AC, Beltramello M, Silacci-Fregni C, Pinto D, Rosen LE, Bowen JE, Acton OJ, Jaconi S, Guarino B, Minola A, Zatta F, Sprugasci N, Bassi J, Peter A, De Marco A, Nix JC, Mele F, Jovic S, Rodriguez BF, Gupta SV, Jin F, Piumatti G, Lo Presti G, Pellanda AF, Biggiogero M, Tarkowski M, Pizzuto MS, Cameroni E, Havenar-Daughton C, Smithey M, Hong D, Lepori V, Albanese E, Ceschi A, Bernasconi E, Elzi L, Ferrari P, Garzoni C, Riva A, Snell G, Sallusto F, Fink K, Virgin HW, Lanzavecchia A, Corti D, Veesler D. Mapping Neutralizing and Immunodominant Sites on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor-Binding Domain by Structure-Guided High-Resolution Serology. Cell. 2020 Nov 12;183(4):1024-1042.e21. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.037. PMCID: PMC7494283 PMID: 32991844

Robbiani DF, Gaebler C, Muecksch F, Lorenzi JCC, Wang Z, Cho A, Agudelo M, Barnes CO, Gazumyan A, Finkin S, Hägglöf T, Oliveira TY, Viant C, Hurley A, Hoffmann H-H, Millard KG, Kost RG, Cipolla M, Gordon K, Bianchini F, Chen ST, Ramos V, Patel R, Dizon J, Shimeliovich I, Mendoza P, Hartweger H, Nogueira L, Pack M, Horowitz J, Schmidt F, Weisblum Y, Michailidis E, Ashbrook AW, Waltari E, Pak JE, Huey-Tubman KE, Koranda N, Hoffman PR, West AP, Rice CM, Hatziioannou T, Bjorkman PJ, Bieniasz PD, Caskey M, Nussenzweig MC. Convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent individuals. Nature. 2020 Aug;584(7821):437–442. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2456-9. PMCID: PMC7442695 PMID: 32555388

Sette A, Crotty S. Adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Cell. 2021 Feb 18;184(4):861–880. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2021.01.007. PMCID: PMC7803150 PMID: 33497610

Gudbjartsson DF, Norddahl GL, Melsted P, Gunnarsdottir K, Holm H, Eythorsson E, Arnthorsson AO, Helgason D, Bjarnadottir K, Ingvarsson RF, Thorsteinsdottir B, Kristjansdottir S, Birgisdottir K, Kristinsdottir AM, Sigurdsson MI, Arnadottir GA, Ivarsdottir EV, Andresdottir M, Jonsson F, Agustsdottir AB, Berglund J, Eiriksdottir B, Fridriksdottir R, Gardarsdottir EE, Gottfredsson M, Gretarsdottir OS, Gudmundsdottir S, Gudmundsson KR, Gunnarsdottir TR, Gylfason A, Helgason A, Jensson BO, Jonasdottir A, Jonsson H, Kristjansson T, Kristinsson KG, Magnusdottir DN, Magnusson OT, Olafsdottir LB, Rognvaldsson S, le Roux L, Sigmundsdottir G, Sigurdsson A, Sveinbjornsson G, Sveinsdottir KE, Sveinsdottir M, Thorarensen EA, Thorbjornsson B, Thordardottir M, Saemundsdottir J, Kristjansson SH, Josefsdottir KS, Masson G, Georgsson G, Kristjansson M, Moller A, Palsson R, Gudnason T, Thorsteinsdottir U, Jonsdottir I, Sulem P, Stefansson K. Humoral Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 in Iceland. N Engl J Med. 2020 Oct 29;383(18):1724–1734. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2026116. PMCID: PMC7494247 PMID: 32871063

Shields AM, Burns SO, Savic S, Richter AG, UK PIN COVID-19 Consortium. COVID-19 in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency: The United Kingdom experience. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Dec 15; doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2020.12.620. PMCID: PMC7737531 PMID: 33338534

Ahn S, Cunningham-Rundles C. Role of B cells in common variable immune deficiency. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2009 Sep;5(5):557–564. doi:10.1586/eci.09.43. PMCID: PMC2922984 PMID: 20477641

Wong GK, Huissoon AP. T-cell abnormalities in common variable immunodeficiency: the hidden defect. J Clin Pathol. 2016 Aug;69(8):672–676. doi:10.1136/jclinpath-2015-203351. PMCID: PMC4975840 PMID: 27153873

Liu Y, Wu Y, Lam K-T, Lee PP-W, Tu W, Lau Y-L. Dendritic and T cell response to influenza is normal in the patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. J Clin Immunol. 2012 Jun;32(3):421–429. doi:10.1007/s10875-011-9639-y. PMCID: PMC3350625 PMID: 22289994

Quinti I, Soresina A, Spadaro G, Martino S, Donnanno S, Agostini C, Claudio P, Franco D, Maria Pesce A, Borghese F, Guerra A, Rondelli R, Plebani A, Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. Long-term follow-up and outcome of a large cohort of patients with common variable immunodeficiency. J Clin Immunol. 2007 May;27(3):308–316. doi:10.1007/s10875-007-9075-1. PMID: 17510807

Ardeniz O, Cunningham-Rundles C. Granulomatous disease in common variable immunodeficiency. Clin Immunol. 2009 Nov;133(2):198–207. doi:10.1016/j.clim.2009.05.001. PMCID: PMC2760682 PMID: 19716342

Verbsky JW, Routes JM. Sarcoidosis and common variable immunodeficiency: similarities and differences. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Jun;35(3):330–335. doi:10.1055/s-0034-1376862. PMID: 25007085

Ho H-E, Cunningham-Rundles C. Non-infectious Complications of Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Updated Clinical Spectrum, Sequelae, and Insights to Pathogenesis. Front Immunol. 2020;11:149. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.00149. PMCID: PMC7025475 PMID: 32117289

Fernando SL, Jang HS-I, Li J. The Immune Dysregulation of Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders. Immunol Lett. 2021 Feb;230:21–26. doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2020.12.002. PMID: 33333111

Page TH, Urbaniak AM, Espirito Santo AI, Danks L, Smallie T, Williams LM, Horwood NJ. Bruton’s tyrosine kinase regulates TLR7/8-induced TNF transcription via nuclear factor-κB recruitment. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018 May 5;499(2):260–266. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.03.140. PMCID: PMC5887515 PMID: 29567473

Roschewski M, Lionakis MS, Sharman JP, Roswarski J, Goy A, Monticelli MA, Roshon M, Wrzesinski SH, Desai JV, Zarakas MA, Collen J, Rose KM, Hamdy A, Izumi R, Wright GW, Chung KK, Baselga J, Staudt LM, Wilson WH. Inhibition of Bruton tyrosine kinase in patients with severe COVID-19. Science Immunology [Internet]. Science Immunology; 2020 Jun 5 [cited 2020 Oct 11];5(48). doi:10.1126/sciimmunol.abd0110. Available from: https://immunology.sciencemag.org/content/5/48/eabd0110 PMID: 32503877

Gupta S, Su H, Narsai T, Agrawal S. SARS-CoV-2-Associated T-Cell Responses in the Presence of Humoral Immunodeficiency. IAA. Karger Publishers; 2021;182(3):195–209. doi:10.1159/000514193. PMID: 33486489

van Vollenhoven RF, Emery P, Bingham CO, Keystone EC, Fleischmann R, Furst DE, Macey K, Sweetser M, Kelman A, Rao R. Longterm safety of patients receiving rituximab in rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials. J Rheumatol. 2010 Mar;37(3):558–567. doi:10.3899/jrheum.090856. PMID: 20110520

Gottenberg J-E, Ravaud P, Bardin T, Cacoub P, Cantagrel A, Combe B, Dougados M, Flipo RM, Godeau B, Guillevin L, Le Loët X, Hachulla E, Schaeverbeke T, Sibilia J, Baron G, Mariette X, AutoImmunity and Rituximab registry and French Society of Rheumatology. Risk factors for severe infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with rituximab in the autoimmunity and rituximab registry. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Sep;62(9):2625–2632. doi:10.1002/art.27555. PMID: 20506353

Caporali R, Caprioli M, Bobbio-Pallavicini F, Bugatti S, Montecucco C. Long term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with rituximab. Autoimmun Rev. 2009 Jun;8(7):591–594. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2009.02.008. PMID: 19393205

Luna G, Alping P, Burman J, Fink K, Fogdell-Hahn A, Gunnarsson M, Hillert J, Langer-Gould A, Lycke J, Nilsson P, Salzer J, Svenningsson A, Vrethem M, Olsson T, Piehl F, Frisell T. Infection Risks Among Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Treated With Fingolimod, Natalizumab, Rituximab, and Injectable Therapies. JAMA Neurol. 2020 Feb 1;77(2):184–191. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.3365. PMCID: PMC6784753 PMID: 31589278

Hughes R, Whitley L, Fitovski K, Schneble H-M, Muros E, Sauter A, Craveiro L, Dillon P, Bonati U, Jessop N, Pedotti R, Koendgen H. COVID-19 in ocrelizumab-treated people with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2021 Apr;49:102725. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102725. PMCID: PMC7772086 PMID: 33482590

Bingham CO, Looney RJ, Deodhar A, Halsey N, Greenwald M, Codding C, Trzaskoma B, Martin F, Agarwal S, Kelman A. Immunization responses in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with rituximab: results from a controlled clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Jan;62(1):64–74. doi:10.1002/art.25034. PMID: 20039397

Ciotti JR, Valtcheva MV, Cross AH. Effects of MS disease-modifying therapies on responses to vaccinations: A review. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Oct;45:102439. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102439. PMCID: PMC7395588 PMID: 32769063

Papp KA, Haraoui B, Kumar D, Marshall JK, Bissonnette R, Bitton A, Bressler B, Gooderham M, Ho V, Jamal S, Pope JE, Steinhart AH, Vinh DC, Wade J. Vaccination Guidelines for Patients With Immune-Mediated Disorders on Immunosuppressive Therapies. J Cutan Med Surg. 2019 Jan;23(1):50–74. doi:10.1177/1203475418811335. PMCID: PMC6330697 PMID: 30463418

Zhang J, Xie F, Delzell E, Chen L, Winthrop K, Lewis JD, Saag K, Baddley JW, Curtis JR. Association between Vaccination for Herpes Zoster and Risk of Herpes Zoster Infection among Older Patients with Selected Immune-mediated Diseases. JAMA. 2012 Jul 4;308(1):43–49. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.7304. PMCID: PMC3683869 PMID: 22760290

Tesoriero JM, Swain C-AE, Pierce JL, Zamboni L, Wu M, Holtgrave DR, Gonzalez CJ, Udo T, Morne JE, Hart-Malloy R, Rajulu DT, Leung S-YJ, Rosenberg ES. COVID-19 Outcomes Among Persons Living With or Without Diagnosed HIV Infection in New York State. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Feb 1;4(2):e2037069. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.37069. PMCID: PMC7859843 PMID: 33533933

Moir S, Fauci AS. B cells in HIV infection and disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009 Apr;9(4):235–245. doi:10.1038/nri2524. PMCID: PMC2779527 PMID: 19319142

Houot R, Levy R, Cartron G, Armand P. Could anti-CD20 therapy jeopardise the efficacy of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine? Eur J Cancer. 2020 Sep;136:4–6. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2020.06.017. PMCID: PMC7315961 PMID: 32619884

Baker D, Roberts CAK, Pryce G, Kang AS, Marta M, Reyes S, Schmierer K, Giovannoni G, Amor S. COVID-19 vaccine-readiness for anti-CD20-depleting therapy in autoimmune diseases. Clin Exp Immunol. 2020 Nov;202(2):149–161. doi:10.1111/cei.13495. PMCID: PMC7405500 PMID: 32671831

Gardulf A, Abolhassani H, Gustafson R, Eriksson LE, Hammarström L. Predictive markers for humoral influenza vaccine response in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Dec;142(6):1922-1931.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2018.02.052. PMID: 29678747

Montero-Escribano P, Matías-Guiu J, Gómez-Iglesias P, Porta-Etessam J, Pytel V, Matias-Guiu JA. Anti-CD20 and COVID-19 in multiple sclerosis and related disorders: A case series of 60 patients from Madrid, Spain. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Jul;42:102185. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102185. PMCID: PMC7204643 PMID: 32408147

Guevara C, Villa E, Rosas CS, Diaz V, Naves R. Treating patients with multiple sclerosis during the COVID-19 pandemic: Assessing the expert recommendations. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Aug;43:102224. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102224. PMCID: PMC7245233 PMID: 32464582

Angeletti A, Drovandi S, Sanguineri F, Santaniello M, Ferrando G, Forno R, Cipresso G, Caridi G, Riella LV, Cravedi P, Ghiggeri GM. COVID-19 in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome on Anti-CD20 Chronic Immunosuppression. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2020 Oct 7;15(10):1494–1495. doi:10.2215/CJN.06400420. PMCID: PMC7536764 PMID: 32718953

Loarce-Martos J, García-Fernández A, López-Gutiérrez F, García-García V, Calvo-Sanz L, Del Bosque-Granero I, Terán-Tinedo MA, Boteanu A, Bachiller-Corral J, Vázquez-Díaz M. High rates of severe disease and death due to SARS-CoV-2 infection in rheumatic disease patients treated with rituximab: a descriptive study. Rheumatol Int. 2020 Dec;40(12):2015–2021. doi:10.1007/s00296-020-04699-x. PMCID: PMC7499013 PMID: 32945944

Sanchez-Piedra C, Diaz-Torne C, Manero J, Pego-Reigosa JM, Rúa-Figueroa Í, Gonzalez-Gay MA, Gomez-Reino J, Alvaro-Gracia JM. Clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with rheumatic diseases treated with biological and synthetic targeted therapies. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020 Jul;79(7):988–990. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217948. PMCID: PMC7307213 PMID: 32503857

Nuño L, Navarro MN, Bonilla G, Franco-Gómez K, Aguado P, Peiteado D, Monjo I, Tornero C, Villalba A, Miranda-Carus M-E, Miguel ED, Bogas P, Castilla-Plaza A, Bernad-Pineda M, García-Lorenzo E, Rodríguez-Araya T, Balsa A. Clinical course, severity and mortality in a cohort of patients with COVID-19 with rheumatic diseases. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd; 2020 Dec 1;79(12):1659–1661. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218054. PMID: 32606046

Assaad S, Avrillon V, Fournier M-L, Mastroianni B, Russias B, Swalduz A, Cassier P, Eberst L, Steineur M-P, Kazes M, Perol M, Michallet A-S, Rey P, Erena-Penet A-S, Morel A, Brahmi M, Dufresne A, Tredan O, Chvetzoff G, Fayette J, de la Fouchardiere C, Ray-Coquard I, Bachelot T, Saintigny P, Tabutin M, Dupré A, Nicolas-Virelizier E, Belhabri A, Roux P-E, Fuhrmann C, Pilleul F, Basle A, Bouhamama A, Galvez C, Herr A-L, Gautier J, Chabaud S, Zrounba P, Perol D, Blay J-Y. High mortality rate in cancer patients with symptoms of COVID-19 with or without detectable SARS-COV-2 on RT-PCR. Eur J Cancer. 2020 Aug;135:251–259. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2020.05.028. PMCID: PMC7275994 PMID: 32540204

Li Q, Zhu F, Xiao Y, Liu T, Liu X, Wu G, Zhang L. A Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patient With COVID-19 Infection After Intensive Immunochemotherapy: A Case Report. Front Oncol. 2020;10:924. doi:10.3389/fonc.2020.00924. PMCID: PMC7256193 PMID: 32574278

Lancman G, Mascarenhas J, Bar-Natan M. Severe COVID-19 virus reactivation following treatment for B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Hematol Oncol. 2020 Oct 2;13(1):131. doi:10.1186/s13045-020-00968-1. PMCID: PMC7531062 PMID: 33008453

Tepasse P-R, Hafezi W, Lutz M, Kühn J, Wilms C, Wiewrodt R, Sackarnd J, Keller M, Schmidt HH, Vollenberg R. Persisting SARS-CoV-2 viraemia after rituximab therapy: two cases with fatal outcome and a review of the literature. Br J Haematol. 2020 Jul;190(2):185–188. doi:10.1111/bjh.16896. PMCID: PMC7300950 PMID: 32557623

Clark E, Guilpain P, Filip IL, Pansu N, Le Bihan C, Cartron G, Tchernonog E, Roubille C, Morquin D, Makinson A, Tuaillon E, Le Moing V. Convalescent plasma for persisting COVID-19 following therapeutic lymphocyte depletion: a report of rapid recovery. Br J Haematol. 2020 Aug;190(3):e154–e156. doi:10.1111/bjh.16981. PMCID: PMC7361823 PMID: 32593180

Yasuda H, Tsukune Y, Watanabe N, Sugimoto K, Uchimura A, Tateyama M, Miyashita Y, Ochi Y, Komatsu N. Persistent COVID-19 Pneumonia and Failure to Develop Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies During Rituximab Maintenance Therapy for Follicular Lymphoma. Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia [Internet]. Elsevier; 2020 Aug 21 [cited 2020 Oct 18];0(0). doi:10.1016/j.clml.2020.08.017. Available from: https://www.clinical-lymphoma-myeloma-leukemia.com/article/S2152-2650(20)30435-3/abstract PMID: 32933879

Martinot M, Jary A, Fafi-Kremer S, Leducq V, Delagreverie H, Garnier M, Pacanowski J, Mékinian A, Pirenne F, Tiberghien P, Calvez V, Humbrecht C, Marcelin A-G, Lacombe K. Remdesivir failure with SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase mutation in a B-cell immunodeficient patient with protracted Covid-19. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 28; doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1474. PMCID: PMC7543308 PMID: 32986807

Kos I, Balensiefer B, Roth S, Ahlgrimm M, Sester M, Schmidt T, Thurner L, Bewarder M, Bals R, Lammert F, Stilgenbauer S, Kaddu-Mulindwa D. Prolonged Course of COVID-19-Associated Pneumonia in a B-Cell Depleted Patient After Rituximab. Front Oncol. 2020;10:1578. doi:10.3389/fonc.2020.01578. PMCID: PMC7493633 PMID: 32984017

Moore JL, Ganapathiraju PV, Kurtz CP, Wainscoat B. A 63-Year-Old Woman with a History of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with Persistent SARS-CoV-2 Infection Who Was Seronegative and Treated with Convalescent Plasma. Am J Case Rep. 2020 Oct 3;21:e927812. doi:10.12659/AJCR.927812. PMCID: PMC7542548 PMID: 33009361

Malsy J, Veletzky L, Heide J, Hennigs A, Gil-Ibanez I, Stein A, Lütgehetmann M, Rosien U, Jasper D, Peine S, Hiller J, Haag F, Schmiedel S, Huber S, Jordan S, Addo MM, Schulze Zur Wiesch J. Sustained response after remdesivir and convalescent plasma therapy in a B-cell depleted patient with protracted COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 26; doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1637. PMCID: PMC7665388 PMID: 33103195

Elcioglu OC, Artan AS, Mirioglu S, Gursu M, Durdu B, Meric Koc M, Okyaltirik F, Gultekin MA, Kazancioglu R. COVİD-19 infection in a membranous nephropathy patient treated with rituximab. CEN Case Rep. 2020 Sep 4;1–5. doi:10.1007/s13730-020-00524-3. PMCID: PMC7472945 PMID: 32888168

Marinaki S, Tsiakas S, Skalioti C, Lourida P, Argyraki A, Grigorakos K, Boletis I. A Patient with Cryoglobulinemic Membranoproliferative GN (MPGN) Who Survived COVID-19 Disease: Case Presentation and Current Data of COVID-19 Infection in Dialysis and Transplanted Patients in Greece. Medicina (Kaunas). 2020 Jul 17;56(7). doi:10.3390/medicina56070355. PMCID: PMC7404464 PMID: 32708858

Koff AG, Laurent-Rolle M, Hsu JC-C, Malinis M. Prolonged incubation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a patient on rituximab therapy. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020 Oct 7;1–2. doi:10.1017/ice.2020.1239. PMCID: PMC7578652 PMID: 33023685

Hakroush S, Franz J, Larsen J, Korsten P, Winkler MS, Tampe B. Repeated false-negative tests delayed diagnosis of COVID-19 in a case with granulomatosis with polyangiitis under maintenance therapy with rituximab and concomitant influenza pneumonia. Ann Rheum Dis. England; 2020 Jul 15; doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218491. PMID: 32669300

Guilpain P, Le Bihan C, Foulongne V, Taourel P, Pansu N, Maria ATJ, Jung B, Larcher R, Klouche K, Le Moing V. Rituximab for granulomatosis with polyangiitis in the pandemic of covid-19: lessons from a case with severe pneumonia. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020 Apr 20; doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217549. PMID: 32312768

Leipe J, Wilke EL, Ebert MP, Teufel A, Reindl W. Long, relapsing, and atypical symptomatic course of COVID-19 in a B-cell-depleted patient after rituximab. Semin Arthritis Rheum. United States; 2020 Oct;50(5):1087–1088. doi:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.06.013. PMID: 32916559

Schramm MA, Venhoff N, Wagner D, Thiel J, Huzly D, Craig-Mueller N, Panning M, Hengel H, Kern WV, Voll RE. COVID-19 in a Severely Immunosuppressed Patient With Life-Threatening Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis. Front Immunol. 2020;11:2086. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.02086. PMCID: PMC7484740 PMID: 32983161

Fallet B, Kyburz D, Walker UA. Mild course of COVID-19 and spontaneous virus clearance in a patient with depleted peripheral blood B cells due to rituximab treatment. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2020 May 26; doi:10.1002/art.41380. PMCID: PMC7283641 PMID: 32458534

Sharmeen S, Elghawy A, Zarlasht F, Yao Q. COVID-19 in rheumatic disease patients on immunosuppressive agents. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2020 Aug;50(4):680–686. doi:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.05.010. PMCID: PMC7245236 PMID: 32512263

Suárez-Díaz S, Morán-Castaño C, Coto-Hernández R, Mozo-Avellaneda L, Suárez-Cuervo C, Caminal-Montero L. Mild COVID-19 in ANCA-associated vasculitis treated with rituximab. Ann Rheum Dis. England; 2020 Aug 7; doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218246. PMID: 32769153

Daniel P, Raad M, Waked R, Choucair J, Riachy M, Haddad F. COVID-19 in a Patient Treated for Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: Persistent Viral Shedding with No Cytokine Storm. Eur J Case Rep Intern Med. 2020;7(10):001922. doi:10.12890/2020_001922. PMCID: PMC7546569 PMID: 33083371

Louapre C, Maillart E, Papeix C, Zeidan S, Biotti D, Lepine Z, Wahab A, Zedet M, Labauge P, Tilikete C, Pique J, Tourbah A, Mathey G, Dimitri Boulos D, Branger P, Kremer LD, Marignier R, Collongues N, De Seze J. Outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with neuromyelitis optica and associated disorders. Eur J Neurol. England; 2020 Oct 26; doi:10.1111/ene.14612. PMID: 33103295

Meca-Lallana V, Aguirre C, Río B, Cardeñoso L, Alarcon T, Vivancos J. COVID-19 in 7 multiple sclerosis patients in treatment with ANTI-CD20 therapies. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Jun 15;44:102306. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102306. PMCID: PMC7295509 PMID: 32585617

Thornton JR, Harel A. Negative SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing following COVID-19 infection in Two MS patients treated with ocrelizumab. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Jun 26;44:102341. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102341. PMCID: PMC7318946 PMID: 32622338

Ghajarzadeh M, Mirmosayyeb O, Barzegar M, Nehzat N, Vaheb S, Shaygannejad V, Maghzi A-H. Favorable outcome after COVID-19 infection in a multiple sclerosis patient initiated on ocrelizumab during the pandemic. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Aug;43:102222. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102222. PMCID: PMC7245286 PMID: 32464586

Iannetta M, Cesta N, Stingone C, Malagnino V, Teti E, Vitale P, De Simone G, Rossi B, Ansaldo L, Compagno M, Spalliera I, Di Lorenzo A, Landi D, Nicoletti CG, Marfia GA, Andreoni M, Sarmati L. Mild clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia in two patients with multiple sclerosis under treatment with ocrelizumab. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Oct;45:102442. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102442. PMCID: PMC7399651 PMID: 32777745

Lucchini M, Bianco A, Del Giacomo P, De Fino C, Nociti V, Mirabella M. Is serological response to SARS-CoV-2 preserved in MS patients on ocrelizumab treatment? A case report. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Jun 22;44:102323. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102323. PMCID: PMC7307994 PMID: 32593961

Novi G, Mikulska M, Briano F, Toscanini F, Tazza F, Uccelli A, Inglese M. COVID-19 in a MS patient treated with ocrelizumab: does immunosuppression have a protective role? Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Jul;42:102120. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102120. PMCID: PMC7156942 PMID: 32315980

Kataria S, Tandon M, Melnic V, Sriwastava S. A case series and literature review of multiple sclerosis and COVID-19: Clinical characteristics, outcomes and a brief review of immunotherapies. eNeurologicalSci. 2020 Dec;21:100287. doi:10.1016/j.ensci.2020.100287. PMCID: PMC7605741 PMID: 33163634

Suwanwongse K, Shabarek N. Benign course of COVID-19 in a multiple sclerosis patient treated with Ocrelizumab. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Jul;42:102201. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102201. PMCID: PMC7227515 PMID: 32480327

Maillart E, Papeix C, Lubetzki C, Roux T, Pourcher V, Louapre C. Beyond COVID-19: DO MS/NMO-SD patients treated with anti-CD20 therapies develop SARS-CoV2 antibodies? Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Sep 3;46:102482. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102482. PMCID: PMC7468278 PMID: 32916509

Woo MS, Steins D, Häußler V, Kohsar M, Haag F, Elias-Hamp B, Heesen C, Lütgehetmann M, Schulze Zur Wiesch J, Friese MA. Control of SARS-CoV-2 infection in rituximab-treated neuroimmunological patients. J Neurol. 2020 Jul 11;1–3. doi:10.1007/s00415-020-10046-8. PMCID: PMC7353821 PMID: 32654064

Devogelaere J, D’hooghe MB, Vanderhauwaert F, D’haeseleer M. Coronavirus disease 2019: favorable outcome in an immunosuppressed patient with multiple sclerosis. Neurol Sci. 2020 Aug;41(8):1981–1983. doi:10.1007/s10072-020-04522-2. PMCID: PMC7305693 PMID: 32564270

Wurm H, Attfield K, Iversen AK, Gold R, Fugger L, Haghikia A. Recovery from COVID-19 in a B-cell-depleted multiple sclerosis patient. Mult Scler. 2020 Sep;26(10):1261–1264. doi:10.1177/1352458520943791. PMCID: PMC7502978 PMID: 32762494

Creed MA, Ballesteros E, Jr LJG, Imitola J. Mild COVID-19 infection despite chronic B cell depletion in a patient with aquaporin-4-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 May 19;44:102199. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2020.102199. PMCID: PMC7236713 PMID: 32554285

Benucci M, Quartuccio L, Li Gobbi F, Damiani A, Grossi V, Infantino M, Manfredi M. Persistence of rT-PCR-SARS-CoV-2 infection and delayed serological response, as a possible effect of rituximab according to the hypothesis of Schulze-Koops et al. Ann Rheum Dis. England; 2020 Aug 4; doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218590. PMID: 32753417

Schulze-Koops H, Krueger K, Vallbracht I, Hasseli R, Skapenko A. Increased risk for severe COVID-19 in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases treated with rituximab. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020 Jun 26; doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218075. PMCID: PMC7371570 PMID: 32591357

Avouac J, Airó P, Carlier N, Matucci-Cerinic M, Allanore Y. Severe COVID-19-associated pneumonia in 3 patients with systemic sclerosis treated with rituximab. Ann Rheum Dis. England; 2020 Jun 5; doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217864. PMID: 32503849