Hurdles to the Development of Effective HBV Immunotherapies and HCV Vaccines

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Almudena Torres-Cornejo
Georg M. Lauer


Chronic infections with HBV and HCV continue to be major public health problems, with hundreds of millions of people infected worldwide; this is despite the availability of both an effective prophylactic HBV vaccine for more than 3 decades and potent direct antivirals for HBV and, more recently, HCV infection. Consequently, development of HBV immunotherapies and prophylactic HCV vaccines remains extremely urgent, but limited funding and significant gaps in our understanding of the correlates of immune protection pose serious hurdles for the development of novel immune-based interventions. Here we discuss immunological questions related to HBV and HCV, some shared and some pertinent to only 1 of the viruses, that should be addressed for the rational design of HBV immunotherapies and HCV vaccines.


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