Confusion in the Study of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

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Claudia Alvarado-de la Barrera
Gustavo Reyes-Terán


As a consequence of late presentation for HIV care, a significant proportion of individuals develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) soon after initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Incidence, predictors, and models of pathogenesis of IRIS vary in the literature. Here we discuss factors that may contribute to this lack of consensus. We propose that different pathogens drive different types of IRIS and suggest that these clinical conditions should be studied individually and not grouped under the general heading of “IRIS.”


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Alvarado-de la Barrera C, Reyes-Terán G. Confusion in the Study of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome. PAI [Internet]. 2017 May 2 [cited 2023 Oct. 3];2(1):126-37. Available from:
Author Biography

Gustavo Reyes-Terán, Departamento de Investigación en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosío Villegas, Mexico City

Head, Department of Research in Infectious Diseases (CIENI).


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